What is Cataract and Why?

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What is Cataract?

A cataract is a clouding of the clear lens of the eye. Looking through hazy lenses, as people with cataracts do, is similar to viewing through frosty or fogged-up windows. Cataracts-induced blurred vision makes it more difficult to read, drive a car (particularly at night), and see a friend ‘s face.

Most cataracts develop slowly, and don’t disturb vision early on. As they progress, they may cause more serious vision problems. left untreated, cataracts eventually result in blindness.

Cataract surgery-which involves removing the eye’s cloudy natural lens and replacing it with a clear artificial one-is one of the most successful procedures in all of medicine.

While cataracts are a normal part of aging, and primarily affect older adults, they occasionally occur in young people too. Cataracts that develop in childhood or adulthood can have other causes, such as trauma, certain diseases, corticosteroid use, or prolonged exposure to ultraviolet.

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cataract causes


Cataracts are a form of rear-end blindness. Cataracts are caused by deterioration or injury to the tissue that forms the lens of the eye. Vision begins to become hazy or cloudy as proteins and fibers in the lens begin to break down.

Cataracts might be caused by a variety of hereditary diseases that cause other health issues. Cataracts can also be induced by various eye problems, previous eye surgery, or medical conditions such as diabetes. Corticosteroid use for prolonged periods of time can also induce cataracts.

How a cataract forms

A cataract is a lens that has a film over it. The colored portion of your eye, known as the iris, sits behind the lens (iris). Light that enters your eye is focused by the lens, producing clear, sharp pictures on the retina — the light-sensitive membrane in the eye that works like film in a camera. As we grow older, the lenses in our eyes become less flexible, transparent, and thick. Proteins and fibers within the lenses break down and clump together as a result of age-related or other medical problems, clouding the lenses.

As the cataract forms, the clouding becomes thicker. A cataract scatters and obscures light as it goes through the lens, preventing you from seeing a sharply defined image on your retina. As a consequence, your vision becomes blurred. Cataracts can form in either eye, but not always at the same rate. One eye’s cataract may be more advanced than the other, resulting in a difference in vision between eyes.

Cataract Formation

Types of Cataract

There are four main types of cataracts, and each type affects the eye in a different way.


Cataracts that affect the center of the lens (nuclear cataracts)

A nuclear cataract, when first diagnosed, might produce more nearsightedness or even a short-term boost to your reading vision. However, the lens gradually becomes yellower and cloudier with time, resulting in further nearsightedness.

Cataracts that affect the lens's edges (cortical cataracts)

On the outer surface of the lens cortex, a cortical cataract starts out as white, wedge-shaped opacities or streaks. The streaks progress inward and obstruct light passing through the center of the lens as it progresses.

Cortical Cataract
Posterior Subcapular

Cataracts on the back of the lens (posterior subcapsular cataracts)

Posterior subcapsular cataracts start as a tiny, opaque area that generally develops near the rear of the lens, in the direction of light. A posterior subcapsular cataract often interferes with your daylight vision, reduces your sight in bright light, and causes glare or halos around lights at night. These types of cataracts are more common in people with diabetes or high myopia (nearsightedness).

Cataracts present at birth (congenital cataracts)

Some individuals are born with cataracts or acquire them as youngsters. These cataracts might be hereditary or linked to an intrauterine infection or accident. Cataracts can also be caused by diseases such as myotonic dystrophy, galactosemia, neurofibromatosis type 2, or rubella. Congenital cataracts do not always result in vision loss, but when they do, surgery is usually needed to remove the cataract.

Posterior Subcapular

Surgery Cost

The cost of cataract surgery is dependent on the “Type of Lens” and the “Type of Surgery Procedure.” A Cataract operation may cost anywhere from Rs.10,000 to Rs.90,000 depending on the type of lens used. For example, a routine cataract operation utilizing an Indian lens costs around Rs.10,000 while a Phaco Cataract operation using an imported lens costs around Rs.20,000 and a MICS procedure with an imported lens costs approximately Rs.35,000.

Monofocal (Distance Vision)PHACO10,000 – 20,000
MICS30,000 – 50,0001.2mm incision
Multifocal (Distance & Near Vision)MICS30,000 – 50,000Anti PCO ring, Blue light filter
Trifocal (Near, Far & Computer Vision)MICS45,000 – 80,000HD Vision, Anti-Glare, Anti PCO ring, Blue light filter
Toric (Distance & Cylinderical Power)MICS30,000 – 50,000Anti-Glare, Anti PCO ring, Blue light filter
For Zepto Robotic Cataract Surgery, additional charges for Rs. 20,000 – 30,000
For Femto LASIK Robotic Cataract Surgery, additional charges for Rs. 70,000 – 90,000